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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem


Wanton Bombing Of Palestinian Refugee Camps In Jordan And Lebanon

Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem, Chapter Thirty One



The wanton bombing of Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan and Lebanon ranks among the most vicious of all Israeli war crimes. Eight hundred thousand Palestinians who were expelled from Palestine in 1948- 1950 and whose homes and lands had been usurped by the Zionists, have become refugees living in refugee camps in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and other Arab countries. These refugee camps have been persistently subjected to bombing from the air by Americanmade airplanes and American-made bombs. Thousands of men, women, children and old people have been killed or maimed in the rain of death dropped onto defenceless refugee camps by the Israeli Air Force.

Zionist propagandists have gone to great lengths to propagate falsehoods over the years. But none has been more fraudulent than the accolades undeservedly bestowed upon the Israeli Air Force. It is not a corps of "Jewish knights in the sky," as the Zionist propaganda apparatus would have people believe. It is an organization whose command and pilots knowingly, willfully and wantonly perpetrate war crimes against innocent non-combatants for the purpose of terrorizing civilians through the spewing of death and destruction from the sky.

The Zionists have managed to confuse many unwitting people with a number of falsehoods about the Israeli Air Force which in fact cannot stand up to scrutiny:

Falsehood #1: The Israeli Air Force is designed to defend the skies of Israel against offensive Arab aircraft.

The truth: The Israeli Air Force has preferred aircraft designed for offensive use against ground targets.

Falsehood #2: The Israeli Air Force is among the most skilled in the world.

The truth: The Israeli Air Force has displayed gross incompetence in its misuse of aircraft designed to attack heavily fortified positions. It has used this air power instead against undefended, concentrated civilian populations.

Falsehood #3: The Israeli Air Force performs "surgical" air strikes against so-called terrorist bases.

The truth: The Israeli Air Force has consistently bombed refugee camps, producing very few casualties among Palestinian freedom fighters, but inflicting massive casualties among non-combatants.

Falsehood #4: Israeli Intelligence is able to pin-point so-called "terrorist bases" as targets for air strikes.

The truth: The communiques of the Israeli Air Force itself mostly claim that air strikes were against merely "suspected" terrorist sites. This is as absurd as bombing a town or village because someone who may have committed an act of violence might be living somewhere in the town or village.

Falsehood # 5: Israeli air strikes are only "retaliatory" actions because of terrorist acts.

The truth: Most Israeli air strikes have been unrelated to armed action by Palestinians, but have been designed solely to "make life unbearable" for the Palestinian civilian population. In cases where air strikes followed an armed Palestinian action, the Israeli Air Force's targets were civilian population centers with no relationship to the men involved in the action for which the "retaliation" allegedly took place.

Falsehood #6: Israeli air power has been a useful instrument in preventing terrorism.

The truth: The only factual connection between the wanton bombing of Palestinian refugee camps and terrorism is that the bombing itself is conducted for the purpose of terrorizing the Palestinian civilian population. The bombings, part and parcel of the "anti-terrorist expertise" fraudulently claimed by Israeli "think tanks," has been admitted to be a failure by some of the Zionists themselves.

In documenting the facts disproving the aforementioned Zionist falsehoods, the following supporting evidence indicates that the command and pilots of the Israeli Air Force knowingly, willfully and wantonly commit war crimes against unarmed civilian population centers, without any reasonable military justification, in flagrant violation of international law.

THE ISRAELI AIR FORCE: OFFENSIVE, NOT DEFENSIVE

Recently declassified United States Government documents reveal that Yitzhak Rabin, presently Israeli Minister of Defence, told Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff General Earle G. Wheeler at a meeting on December 16, 1967, when Rabin was Chief of Staff of the Israeli Defence Forces, that "Air power was the key to a credible Israeli deterrent" and that without a distinct air power advantage "Israel is forced on to a posture of pre-emption as the only choice for survival." (1) In other words, Rabin claimed that Israeli air power had to be superior to that of the combined Arab states so that Israel could be militarily defensive, rather than militarily offensive.

The subsequent record of Israeli Air Force acquisition of offensive aircraft from the United States clearly shows that Rabin deceitfully misrepresented the purpose of the Israeli Air Force to General Wheeler as one of "deterrence" when in fact its purpose was for calculated offense.

On January 7-8, 1968 Levi Eshkol, then Prime Minister of Israel, used the fact that 1968 was a presidential election year in the United States to extort from President Lyndon Baines Johnson a promise to deliver to the Israeli Air Force fifty American-made F-4E Phantom airplanes. (2)

The then Israeli Air Force Commander, Mordechai Hod, demanded that the F-4E aircraft promised by President Johnson have "as few modifications as possible." (3) Hod's Air Force previously dismissed the idea of receiving the more defensively designed F-5 American-made aircraft. The Israeli Air Force even refused to test fly the F-5. "Their objective was not defense. They wanted a fighter bomber, not an interceptor." (4)

Giving the Israeli Air Force F-4 Phantom aircraft and thereby giving it the capability of waging offensive airstrikes was almost unanimously opposed by the Department of Defense, the Department of State and the CIA. "All argued against the sale in briefing papers prepared just prior to the Johnson-Eshkol meeting." (5)

This evidence shows conclusively that the Israeli Air ,I Force refused the opportunity of acquiring American made F-5 aircraft, which were designed primarily for defensive purposes, and instead demanded F-4 aircraft, which were designed primarily for offensive purposes.

The true offensive purpose of the F-4 aircraft when used by the Israeli Air Force was revealed by the persistent bombing of Palestinian refugee camps, with the resultant slaughter of unarmed civilians. No senior officer, of the Israeli Air Force, nor pilot flying the F-4 airplanes on such missions, can deny the fact that the F-4 is intended to be an offensive weapon.

The Israeli Air Force's preference for offensive aircraft has continued into later generations of American-made aircraft, including F- 15's and F-16's.

ISRAELI AIR FORCE'S REPUTATION IS DELIBERATELY OVERRATED BY ZIONIST PROPAGANDA

Israeli military correspondent and historian Ze'ev Schiff, quoting Ezer Weizman, former Commander of the Israeli Air Force, gives evidence of the arrogance of the Zionists in glorifying the mass-murderers in the sky of the Israeli Air Force:

The talent of the nation is to be found in the Israeli Air Force ... The aircraft more than anything else is a tool of war. The use of it demands considerable intelligence ... Here, the Jewish people stands out more in its talent, and therefore we are more capable than the enemy ..." (6)

This self-glorification is typical of the "superman" image the Zionist propagandists have fashioned for the personnel of the Israeli Air Force.

In reality, the Israeli Air Force has displayed gross incompetence on many occasions. For example, when Robert Kubal, Israel desk officer for International Security Affairs at the U.S. Department of Defense, complained to the Israeli Defense Attache that the Israeli Air Force was abusing its use of F-4 aircraft because the airplane was so fast that close-in bombing raids in heavily populated areas could result in many civilian casualties, the Israeli Defense Attache arrogantly replied that "Israeli pilots were better than U.S. pilots, and no civilians could be killed by mistake." (7)

How superior the Israeli pilots were was amply shown on April 8, 1970 when they hit an elementary school at Bahr al Baqr, fifteen miles west of the Suez Canal, killing forty-six Egyptian schoolchildren. (8)

This missing of its assigned target in Egypt on April 8, 1970 demonstrated how fallible, indeed, the Israeli Air Force actually is.

Moshe Dayan, then Minister of Defense, said that "if the Egyptian children were killed in the jet raid it was because their classrooms were in a military structure." (9) This blatant lie told by Dayan was of course totally without credibility and believed by no one.

ISRAELI AIR STRIKES ARE NOT AGAINST SO-CALLED "TERRORIST BASES," BUT ARE DELIBERATELY AIMED AT PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS AS POPULATION CENTERS

The Israeli Air Force has carefully cultivated the legend that it conducts "surgical air strikes" against so-called "terrorist bases," and thus minimizes possible civilian casualties. The record of bombings carried out over the years by the Israeli Air Force completely exposes the myth for what it is.

Indeed, the very first reported air raid by the infant Israeli Air Force on June 1, 1948 was against Amman, the capital of Jordan, a civilian population center.I0 The Israeli Air Force has continued to favor civilian population centers as targets ever since then.

For example, in its air strikes against Egypt "the Israeli government must have realized, if only because the U.S. Defense Department told them so, that the targets that the Israeli Air Force chose in densely populated Egypt greatly increased the risk of civilian deaths." (11)

But it was the Palestinian refugee camps which were, and are, the primary targets of the Israeli Air Force. For example, on November 20, 1967 Israeli aircraft and artillery bombarded Kararneh refugee camp in Jordan. killing 14 and wounding 28 Palestinians. Some of those killed by Israeli Air Force fragmentation bombs were children. (12)

Seventeen years later, the press reported "what Israel called a 'surgical' operation against 'terrorist installations' near Baalbek in the Bekaavalley of Lebanon in January 1984, killing about one hundred people, mostly civilians, with four hundred wounded, including 150 children in a bombed-out schoolhouse. The 'terrorist installations' also included a mosque, an hotel, a restaurant, stores and other buildings in the three Lebanese villages and Palestinian refugee camps that were attacked." (13) One searches in vain for examples of "surgical air strikes" by the Israeli Air Force against purely military targets, unless one accepts the premise that "surgery" is routinely conducted with a butcher's knife!

ISRAELI INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS' TO PIN-POINT ACCURACY IN SELECTING TARGETS ARE TOTALLY BOGUS

The Israeli Intelligence services, Mossad and Military Intelligence, have been glorified by Zionist propagandists for their alleged successes. Actually, except for an expertise in conducting terrorist acts themselves, or in spying on supposedly friendly countries like the United States as seen in the Pollard case, the Israeli Intelligence services have had a poor record in such normal intelligence functions as aerial target selection.

As previously mentioned, the majority of Israeli Air Force communiques on air strikes have described the targets as "suspected" terrorist bases. Before the 1967 war against Egypt, Jordan and Syria, Israeli Military Intelligence, under General Aharon Yariv, "had refined Israeli first strike capability to the point where chance was ruled out." (14) But Yariv's conspiratorial planning for a surprise attack against the conventional forces of Egypt, Jordan and Syria was one thing. As far as Palestinian refugee camps were concerned, Yariv and his war criminal ilk obviously considered that Palestinian civilians constituted a military target. Israel could not accept non-combatant status for Palestinians. Their very existence made them "terrorists" in the eyes of the Israelis.

'"Know your enemy' was not, Yariv told his heads of department, merely a figure of speech; it had to be taken literally." (15) But did Yariv follow his own dictum? Could the head of Israeli Military Intelligence actually believe that the old men and women, mothers with infants and schoolchildren murdered by the Israeli Air Force in its bombing raids on Palestinian refugee camps, posed an actual military threat? Evidently so, for in scenes of gruesome carnage, they were the targets of Israeli bombing raids.


ISRAELI AIR FORCE BOMBING OF PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IS NOT "RETALIATORY" BUT COLD-BLOODED MASSACRE

Israel has very skillfully fostered the idea that its air strikes against Palestinian refugee camps are in "retaliation" for terrorist acts perpetrated by Palestinians. Few ask the obvious question of why such innocent Palestinians should be slaughtered because some other Palestinians commit an act of violence.

The idea of "retaliatory" air strikes against innocent Palestinian non-combatants in "reprisal" for armed actions by other Palestinians was first conceived in the convoluted brain of David Ben-Gurion. In 1953, it was Ben-Gurion who was the architect of the air and land attack on the village of Kibya. According to the Diary of Moshe Sharett, then Prime Minister of Israel:

I told Lavon that this attack will be a grave error, and recalled, citing various precedents, that it was never proved that reprisal actions serve their declared purpose. Lavon smiled ... Ben-Gurion, he said, didn't share my view.(Diary entry for 14 October, 1953). (16)

Sharett continued:

I must underline that when I opposed the action I didn't even remotely suspect such a bloodbath. I thought that I was opposing one of those actions which have become a routine in the past. (Diary entry for 16 October, 1953). (17)

Yehoshafat Harkabi (then Assistant Chief of Military Intelligence) reported movements of Jordanian troops ... It is impossible that they did not get the impression that the bombing of Kibya means possible war. (Diary entry for 17 October, 1953). (18)

Sharett was quite right in assessing that reprisal actions don't serve their avowed purpose. But Ben-Gurion left to the Israeli Air Force the legacy of his belief in the effectiveness of reprisal raids.

Later on, people like Harkabi and Yariv developed theories of "retaliatory" or "pre-emptive" strikes against civilian Palestinian targets. In the mid-1970's, Israel shifted the alleged justification for mercilessly slaughtering Palestinian non-combatants from the air from "retaliation" to 'prevention." Thus, "on December 2, 1975, 30 Israeli warplanes bombed and strafed Palestinian refugee camps and nearby villages in Lebanon, killing 92 people." (19)

"Israeli officials stressed that the purpose of the action had been preventive, not p~nitive."~'

Thus Israeli "retaliatory" policy escalated from bombing innocent Palestinians because of actions by other Palestinians, to bombing innocent Palestinians because other Palestinians might possibly be planning to commit armed acts in the future!

The unvarnished truth about so-called "retaliatory" air raids by the Israeli Air Force had been candidly admitted by General David Elazar when he admitted that the purpose of the raids was simply "to make life unbearable" for Palestinians. (21)

The unmasking of this despicable cynicism shows incontestably that "retaliation" was only a theoretical coating super-imposed over a fundamental desire to kill or otherwise destroy Palestinians wherever they happen to be, in a classic example of the criminal's trying to eliminate his victim in order to erase the memory of the crime.

ISRAELI AIR POWER AS A MEANS OF PREVENTING TERRORISM IS A FAILURE

Israeli "think tanks" at many universities have beguiled foreign governments with their alleged expertise in "preventing terrorism." The bombing raids conducted by the Israeli Air Force have been among the major methods advocated by these so-called experts in combatting terrorism.

Two of the principal "think tanks" have been clustered at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and at the Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies at Tel Aviv University. At the Department of International Relations at the Hebrew University, Professor Yehoshafat Harkabi presides over a coterie of "strategists."

Who is Professor Yehoshafat Harkabi? He is a war criminal who served as Head of Military Intelligence. If a former head of the D.I.A. held a comparable position at Harvard University in the United States, his work would be considered as probably self-serving and benefitting solely reputations in the intelligence community. Harkabi is a military pseudo-intellectual who tries to find justification in abstract theory for waging the dirtiest kind of war. "The mind is the most powerful weapon we possess," is a phrase in one of the manuals which all recruits at the training school for both Mossad and Military Intelligence are required to study, and Harkabi has "shown how the intellect can be polished to become an instrument of murder." (22)

The Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies at Tel-Aviv University is headed by Maj. Gen. (Res.) Aharon Yariv, the former head of Military Intelligence who planned the 1967 war of aggression against Egypt, Jordan and Syria. Realizing that the indiscriminate bombing of civilian refugee camps has not produced "victory" against so-called terrorism, Yariv has the audacity to suggest that "the problem should perhaps be defined in terms of containment rather than victory, at least for the foreseeable future." (23) Thus Yariv, conceding that Israeli tactics such as the bombings have not been successful, changes their goal to one of "containment" in which no one can assess effectiveness!

Ariel Merari, a Clinical Psychologist at the Department of Psychology at Tel-Aviv University and so-called "terrorism expert" at Yariv's Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, has admitted:

Despite its international reputation and possibly its self-image as well, Israel has not fared better than any other nation in the struggle against terrorism, nor has it been more consistent.,. Israel's offensive measures have consisted of retaliatory assaults, the declared purpose of which was primarily deterrence through punishment ... These measures have not been uniformly successful ... retaliatory attacks have failed to deter the terrorist organizations ... Having learned little from her previous experience, Israel resorted again to a policy of retaliation with an eye to deterrence, achieving the same degree of success as before ... In April 1979 Israel turned to a new policy of continuous assaults on PLO strongholds in southern Lebanon. The idea was to take the initiative and harass the terrorists constantly, so as to keep them preoccupied with defense, and, hopefully, to undermine their morale by attrition, thus achieving a deterrence effect. This policy was maintained for six months in 1979, with no clear result. It was resumed in April 1980 ..." (24)

The so-called "terrorist strongholds" described by Ariel Merari which the Israeli Air Force attacked mercilessly were in fact refugee camps inhabited by non-combatant Palestininian civilians. It is difficult to understand that Merari, as a psychologist. cannot readily ascertain that punishment inflicted on innocent people never serves as a deterrent to others.

Professor Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi of the Psychology Department of the University of Haifa, a respected clinical psychologist, says of Merari and the gang of "terrorologists" trying to justify the Israeli Air Force's murder of innocent civilians:


To judge by media reports over the past ten years, it would seem that a new academic discipline had been born: terrorology, the study ofterrorism. Books have been written, scholarly conferences held, "models" and "typologies" presented, and a new discourse has bombarded us with warnings about the dangers of "international terrorism." But despite the fact that some of the proponents of the new terrorology are academics, the campaign has all the marks of what has become known as media hype, otherwise sometimes called propaganda or disinformation. The new discourse has not gained much respectability outside the narrow confines of places called "centers for strategic studies". The new terrorology represents only a handful of academics, a handful of journalists, and a handful of governments, among them South Africa and Israel.

The only academic haven for terrorism research in Israel is the Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies at Tel-Aviv University. The center has a project on terrorism, headed by Dr. Ariel Merari, a psychologist. While Dr. Merari's early career was devoted to studying the sexual behavior of animals, he turned his attention to terrorism after 1973 ...

There is, of course, cooperation between the terrorism project at the Jaffee Center and the Terrorism Research Centre in Cape Town, South Africa. (25)

Professor Beit-Hallahmi shows that Zionist leaders have advised South Africa to conduct bombing raids against African refugee camps similar to those conducted by the Israeli Air Force against Palestinian civilians. The South Africans did so, and Professor Beit-Hallahmi assesses that "the effect is the same, too ... the raids have not reduced the African resistance Just as Palestinian resistance has not been weakened." (26)

The Zionist "think-tanks" have thus been exporters of failed ideas, which being fundamentally flawed, like Zionism itself, failed elsewhere as well.

It should be mentioned that among the International Board of Trustees of General Yariv's Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies is one "Dr. Gerald Falwell." (27) He is better known as Reverend Jerry Falwell, the fundamentalist super-Zionist who has misled millions of Christian Americans into blind support for so-called Israel. These Americans should witness the corpses of the innocent victims of Israeli Air Force raids on Palestinian refugee camps. They should witness the effects of napalm dropped on civilians by the Israeli Air Force, the thousands of families sitting in the rubble of their own homes. Perhaps then they would stop following that "pied-piper" who is aiding and abetting Israel's war crimes by being on the Jaffee Center's Board. Jerry Falwell is a personal friend of Menachem Begin, who presented him with an airplane. He conducts tours to Israel and carries out a vicious propaganda campaign to white-wash the Israeli war criminals and to justify their crimes before the American public.


EXAMPLES OF WANTON BOMBING OF CIVILIAN TARGETS

The following itemization of counts of the war crime of wanton bombing of Palestinian refugee camps clearly indicates that the Israeli Air Force, with its entire past and present command and its pilots, should be declared a war criminal organization.

June 1, 1948: Israeli planes raided Amman, Transjordan, and reportedly attacked Arabs in the Nablus-Jenin-Tulkarm triangle. (28)

April 5, 1951: Israeli Army spokesman Lt. Col. Moshe Pearlman announced that the Israeli Air Force had bombed positions within Syria as a "retaliatory action."29 Many old people, women and children were wounded in El Harnma. On April 9, 1951. the United States rebuked Israel for its aerial bombing of Syrian territory, saying that the bombing was "in no way justified." The British Government joined the U.S. in representations to Israel. (30)

October 14, 1953: Israeli land and air forces attacked the village of Kibya across the Jordanian frontier, killing 53 persons and destroying all the houses and the school. (31)

September 14, 1956: Three Israeli bombers, supporting a 1,000 man ground force attacked 12 miles inside Jordan. Ten Jordanians were killed, 4 wounded. (32)

March 19, 1962: Two Israeli planes bombed Jordanian territory. (33)

June 9, 1963: Two Israeli jets attacked a Syrian village on the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee. (34)

July 14, 1966: Israeli aircraft attacked 8 miles inside Syria "as a reprisal for Arab incursions," killing 1 woman and wounding 9 civilians. (35)

June 6, 1967: Israel used napalm bombs and rockets in bombing Jordanian territory, including wanton attacks on field hospitals near Jenin and Nablus. (36)

November 20, 1967: Israeli planes hit a refugee camp administered by the UN in Jordan, killing 14 Palestinians and wounding 28. Some of the killed were children. (37)

February 16, 1968: 16 civilians were killed and many wounded in Israeli artillery and air attacks against Jordan. (38)

June 4, 1968: Israeli aircraft attacked Jordan in the Manshiyyah area. 30 Jordanians were killed and 60 wounded. (39)

January 11, 1969: Israeli jets struck Palestinian refugee camps at al-Shunah and Manshiyyah in Jordan. (40)

January 16, 1969: Israeli jets hit Jordanian territory south of the Sea of Galilee. (41)

January 30, 1969: Israeli Mirage jets attacked Irbid, in Jordan. (42)

February 24, 1969: Israeli jets attacked Palestinian refugee camps at al-Hammah and Maysalun 30 miles inside Syria, killing 3 and wounding 17. (43)

March 14, 1969: 2 civilians were killed and 9 wounded when Israeli jets struck Jordanian territory south of Lake Tiberias. (44)

March 16, 1969: Israeli jets killed 7 and wounded 11 in attacks on Palestinian refugee camps near al-Yahudah, Darabat and Dhiban in Jordan. (45)

March 26, 1969: Israeli jets struck a road resthouse near al-Salt in Jordan, killing 18 civilians and wounding 25. (46)

April 13, 1969: Two Israeli planes raided the Karamah area in Jordan. (47)

May 4, 1969: Israeli jets struck a Palestinian refugee camp near Shawbak in Jordan. (48)

May 28, 1969; Four Israeli jets struck Kurayyimah in Jordan, wounding 4 civilians, including 1 child. (49)

June 18, 1969: Israeli jets attacked north of the Abdallah Bridge in Jordan, killing 4 and wounding 7. (50)

June 19, 1969: 1 civilian was killed and 6 wounded in an Israeli jet attack in the southern Jordan Valley. (51)

June 25, 1969: Ten Israeli jets bombed Jordan south of the Sea of Galilee, killing 8 and wounding 6. (52)

July 22, 1969: Israeli jets struck at Palestinian refugee camps in the northern Jordan Valley. (53)

July 29, 1969: Israeli jets raided Irbid in Jordan, killing 3 and wounding 12. (54)

July 30, 1969: Israeli jets attacked locations on Mt. Hermon in Syria and Lebanon, injuring 11 persons. (55)

August 8, 1969: Israeli launched air attacks on Ghor and al-Safi in Jordan. (56)

August 10, 1969: Israeli jets struck sections of the East Ghor Canal in Jordan, seriously damaging the canal and wounding 3. (57)

August 11, 1969: Sixteen Israeli jets struck sites on Mt. Hermon, 6 miles inside Lebanon, killing 4 civilians and seriously wounding 3 with napalm bombs. (58)

August 25, 1969: Israeli jets struck the Wadi Zarqa region in Jordan, killing 4 and wounding 7. (59)

August 28, 1969: Israeli jets bombed sites near the Damiyeh Bridge in Jordan. (60)

September 3, 1969: Israeli jets struck at sites on Mt. Hermon in Lebanon, wounding 2 civilians. (61)

September 4, 1969: Israeli jets attacked in the Jordan Valley, killing 5. (62)

September 11, 1969: Israeli jets struck areas south of the Sea of Galilee and near al-Salt in Jordan. (63)

September 16, 1969: Four civilians were wounded in Israeli air raids south of the Sea of Galilee. (64)

September 24, 1969: Israeli jets struck in the Jordan Valley. (65)

September 29, 1969: Israeli jets struck in the Mandassah Bridge area in Jordan. (66)

October 7, 1969: Israeli jets struck Jordan in the south of the Sea of Galilee, killing 2 civilians and wounding 6. (67)

October 8, 1969: Israeli jets struck the Shallal area in Jordan, killing 2 civilians and wounding 6. (68)

October 25, 1969: Israeli planes attacked Jubeiha, outside of Amman, wounding 8 Jordanians. (69)

November 13, 1969: Israeli jets attacked Jordan in the Baysan Valley, killing 6, including a child? (70)

December 8, 1969: Israeli jets struck at al-Shunah in Jordan, killing 1 and wounding 10. (71)

December 21, 1969: Israeli jets attacked sites across the Jordan River south of the Sea of Galilee, killing 10 and wounding 10 others. (72)

December 28, 1969: Israeli jets attacked the Baysan Valley in Jordan, killing 11 and wounding 1. (73)

December 29, 1969: Israeli planes bombed Ajlun, 10 miles east of the Jordan River. (74)

January 1, 1970: Israeli jets bombed the East Ghor Canal during raids on Irbid, killing 11 people, including six children, and wounding 12. (75)

January 2, 1970: Israeli jets made two raids 8 miles inside the Lebanese border, injuring 9 civilians. (76)

January 6, 1970: Israeli jets attacked Mt. Hermon in Lebanon, wounding 16 civilians. (77)

January 9, 1970: Israeli jets wounded 6 Lebanese in attacks on Mt. Hermon. (78)

January 28, 1970: Israeli planes dropped time bombs in the residential area of Manaqbad, Egypt, causing 31 causualties. (79)

February 8, 1970: Israeli jets wounded 12 civilians at Helwan, Egypt. (80)

February 12, 1970: In an Israeli jet raid on a suburb of Cairo a bomb was dropped on a civilian factory at al-Khanda, killing 70 civilians and wounding many more. Some of the bombs dropped were timed to explode in 24 hours. (81)

March 13, 1970: 5 Egyptian civilians were killed and 35 wounded in an Israeli air attack near al-Mansurah, Egypt. (82)

March 31, 1970: Israeli jets struck near al-Mansurah, Egypt, killing 12 civilians and wounding 35 others in the attack. (83)

April 8, 1970: Israeli jets struck Bahr al-Baqr, Egypt, killing 46 children in their school. (84)

April 10, 1970: Israeli planes launched a one hour bombing and strafing raid inside Jordan, killing 6 civilians and wounding 10. (85)

April 24, 1970: 5 civilians were killed and 3 wounded in an Israeli jet attack on a Palestinian refugee camp near al-Salt. (86)

June 18, 1970: Israeli jets attacked the area of al-Salyiya in Egypt, killing 16. (87)

June 27, 1970: Israeli jets struck Palestinian refugee camps in the Baysan Valley in Jordan, killing 2 and wounding 13. (88)

July 19, 1970: Israeli planes struck at targets in Jordan, killing 1 civilian and wounding 4. (89)

August 14, 1970: Israeli jets struck Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan, killing 1 and wounding 8. (90)

August 28, 1970: Israeli planes raided Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan, killing 2 civilians. (91)

March 9, 1972: Israeli jets raided villages in Lebanon, destroying 30 buildings, and wounding 2 civilians, including a child. (92)

June 23, 1972: Israeli planes raided Deir Al-Ashair in Lebanon, killing 19 civilians, mainly women and children. (93)

September 8, 1972: Israeli planes bombed Palestinian refugee camps in Syria and Lebanon, killing 59 and wounding 40. (94)

October 15, 1972: Israeli jets bombed 4 Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon and 1 in Syria, killing at least 2 and wounding 1 6. (95)

October 30, 1972: Israeli planes raided 4 Palestinian refugee camps near Damascus, Syria, killing more than 60 persons and wounding 70. Casualties included women and children. (96)

December 27, 1972: Israeli jets raided Palestinian refugee camps in Syria, killing 3 civilians and wounding 2. (97)

October 9, 1973: Israeli jets raided Damascus, Syria, killing 100, mostly civilians. The Soviet Cultural Center was among the buildings bombed, killing 6 Soviet citizens. (98)

October 10, 1973: Israeli jets and missile boats attacked the Syrian ports of Latakiya, Tartus and Baniysa, striking three freighters belonging respectively to Greece, Japan and the Soviet Union. (99)

May 2, 1974: Israeli planes bombed southern Lebanon, injuring 5 persons. (100)

May 3, 1974: Israeli planes attacked Palestinian refugee camps in southern Lebanon for the 2nd day. (101)

May 4, 1974: Israeli planes attacked the western slopes of Mt. Hermon in Lebanon. (102)

May 16, 1974: Israeli planes bombed and strafed Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon in so-called "reprisal" for the Maalot incident. More than 50 Palestinians were killed and 170 were injured. (103)

May 17, 1974: Israeli planes bombed a village in eastern Lebanon for the second day, killing or wounding more than 100. (104)

May 21, 1974: Israeli jets bombed targets in Lebanon. Three children were killed and 17 persons were wounded. (105)

June 18, 1974: Israeli jets struck Palestinian refugee camps in two separate raids, killing 1 person in one raid and wounding a child in the other. (106)

June 20, 1974: Israeli sent dozens of warplanes into Lebanon to bomb Palestinian refugee camps for the 3rd consecutive day. One hundred persons were killed and 200 wounded. (107)

July 23, 1974: Israeli planes bombed Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon. (108)

August 7, 1974: Israeli warplanes attacked Khreibe and Rachaya el Fakkhar in southeast Lebanon, killing 2 and wounding 17. (109)

September 15, 1974: Israeli jets bombed villages in south Lebanon, killing one civilian. (110)

September 25, 1974: Israeli planes bombed the Arqub region of south Lebanon. (111)

November 11, 1974: Israeli jets attacked targets in southern Lebanon, killing 3 Palestinians and 2 Lebanese, and wounding 7. (112)

November 30, 1974: Israeli planes conducted an air raid in the Kafra region of Lebanon. (113)

December 12, 1974: Israeli planes attacked two Palestinian refugee camps near Beirut, killing one civilian, wounding twenty and destroying 100 homes. (114)

June 15, 1975: Israeli jets bombed the Lebanese village of Kafr Shuba killing one woman and wounding 3 persons. (115)

July 7, 1975: Israeli planes and ships attacked Palestinian refugee camps in southern Lebanon, killing at least 16 persons. (116)

July 13, 1975: Israeli planes raided a Palestinian refugee camp near Saida, Lebanon, killing 4 and wounding 22. (117)

August 20, 1975: Israeli planes raided a Palestinian refugee camp in northeast Lebanon, killing 12 and wounding 28. (118)

September 2, 1975: Israeli planes attacked targets in south Lebanon, killing 2 and wounding 8. (119)

September 3, 1975: Israeli planes bombed a Palestinian refugee camp near Tyre, Lebanon, killing 2 children and wounding 8 people. (120)

September 11, 1975: Six Israeli jets raided targets near Tyre, in southern Lebanon, killing 2 children and wounding 6 people, 4 of them children. (121)

December 2, 1975: Israeli jets attacked Palestinian refugee camps in northern and southern Lebanon, killing 92 Palestinians and wounding 160. Israel said the strikes were "preventive" and not "punitive." (122)

March 15, 1978: Israeli planes struck at Damur and at Palestinian camps on the outskirts of Beirut and Tyre, Lebanon, killing civilians. (123)

March 20, 1978: Palestinians at Beaufort Castle in Lebanon were bombed by Israeli planes. (124)

August 3, 1978: Four Israeli jets struck at Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, wounding five Lebanese civilians nearby. (125)

August 21, 1978: 1978 Israeli aircraft struck at a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut and attacked Palestinian centers in Damur, Lebanon, killing 5 and wounding 25. (126)

December 20, 1978: Israel launched air strikes against Palestinians around Tyre, in Lebanon, killing 2, including 1 woman and injuring 1 1, including an infant. (127)

April 10, 1979: Israeli jets struck at Palestinians at Damur and in the area of Tyre, in Lebanon, killing four persons and wounding 20. (128)

April 11, 1979: Israeli planes struck at Damur and Tyre in Lebanon. (129)

May 6, 1979: Israeli jets raided a so-called "guerrila camp" at the south Lebanese village of Reihan, killing 4 and wounding 30. (130)

May 8, 1979: Israeli jets attacked Palestinian civilians living south of Sidon and then at the Palestinian refugee camp at Reihan, injuring 3 persons. (131)

May 23-24, 1979: Israeli jets struck Damur and Nabatiyeh and two other south Lebanese villages, killing 20 people. Lebanon termed the attacks "arrogant defiance of intemationa1 conscience." (132)

June 8, 1979: Israeli jets struck four villages near the Lebanese town of Nabariyah, killing one civilian and injuring 10. (133)

June 18, 1979: Israeli jets struck Palestinian refugee camps in southern Lebanon, killing at least 10 victims. (134)

July 20, 1979: Israeli jets bombed Damur and two other Lebanese villages, killing at least 15 people. The New York Times reported that the toll of those believed killed in Israeli air attacks in Lebanon in the preceding four months had risen to more than 200, most of whom were Palestinian and Lebanese civilians. (135)

August 20, 1979: Israeli jets struck targets near the Lebanese port of Tyre, wounding at least 6 people. (136)

November 7, 1979: Israeli aircraft attacked four areas of sou them Lebanon. (137)

December 31, 1980: Israeli planes attacked southern Lebanon, killing at least 10 people. (138)

June 2, 1981: Israel resumed air raids in southern Lebanon, striking at a village north of Tyre, killing 6 and wounding 45. (139)

June 8, 1981: The Israeli government admitted that on June 6 the Israeli Air Force had bombed the Iraqi nuclear reactor near Baghdad, killing a French citizen. (140)

July 10, 1981: Israeli planes bombed targets between Sidon and Babatiya in southern Lebanon, killing 3 and wounding 15. (141)

July 12, 1981: Israeli planes bombed Damur in southern Lebanon, killing or wounding 25 peop1e. (142)

July 16, 1981: Israeli air attacks destroyed five bridges across the Zhrani and Litani rivers in southern Lebanon. killing 28 and wounding 30. (143)

July 17, 1981: Israeli planes bombed east Beirut, killing an estimated 300 persons and wounding 800. (144)

July 20, 1981: Israeli aircraft struck at 18 separate areas in southern Lebanon, including Tyre and Beaufort Castle. (145)

April 21, 1982: Sixty Israeli jets attacked different areas in Lebanon killing 23 people and wounding several dozen. (146)

May 9, 1982: Israeli warplanes attacked Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, killing 16 people and wounding 50. (147)

June 5, 1982: Israeli jets attacked Beirut and areas of southern Lebanon, killing 45 people and wounding 150.148

June 12, 1982: The Israeli Air Force conducted extensive air attacks on West Beirut. (149)

June 13, 1982: The Israeli Air Force again struck at West Beirut. (150)

July 22, 1982: Israel resumed air and artillery attacks against Palestinian neighborhoods and camps in West Beirut, killing or wounding 62 civilians, mainly women and children. (151)

July 26, 1982: Israeli jets, artillery and gunboats shelled West Beirut for the fifth consecutive day, killing or wounding 101 civilians. (152)

July 27, 1982: Israeli jets bombed a residential area of West Beirut, killing 120 and wounding 232, mostly civilians. (153)

August 1, 1982; Israeli jets bombed West Beirut for 14 hours. (154)

August 11, 1982: Israeli jets attacked Palestinian refugee camps in West Beirut. (155)

August 12, 1982: Israel mounted heavy air attacks against West Beirut fort 10 hours, causing 300 casualties. (156)

September 14, 1982: Israeli warplanes bombed the Biqa 826 Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem Valley, killing or wounding 40 people. (157)

November 4, 1983: Israeli jets attacked Palestinians along the Beirut-Damascus Highway, killing 60 people. (158)

November 16, 1983: Israeli jets bombed eastern Lebanon, killing 30 and wounding 50. (169)

November 20, 1983: Israeli jets bombed eastern Lebanon. (160)

December 21, 1983: Israeli jets bombed south Lebanon, killing 2. (161)

January 4, 1984: 16 Israeli bombers bombed Baalbek in Lebanon, killing 100 and wounding 400. (162)

February 19, 1984: Israeli jets bombed areas near Damur, killing one person and wounding 7. (163)

February 21, 1984: Israeli jets bombed four sites around the town of Bhamdun, Lebanon. (164)

March 5, 1984: Israeli warplanes bombed Palestinian refugees in the mountains southeast of Beirut. (165)

March 5, 1984: Israeli aircraft twice attacked targets near Alay, east of Beirut. (166)

April 6, 1984: Israeli jets attacked Palestinians in Bhamdun, Lebanon. (167)

April 7, 1984: Israeli jets again attacked Bharndun. (168)

May 20, 1984: Israeli warplanes bombed Janta in the Lebanese Biqa Valley, killing a farmer who was planting his fields and wounding four others. (169)

July 2, 1984: Israeli warplanes bombed the Biqa Valley in Lebanon. (170)

August 16, 1984: Israeli warplanes bombed a camp near Bar Elias in the Biqa Valley of Lebanon. (171)

August 28, 1984: Israeli warplanes bombed Majd al-Anjar in the easier Lebanese Biqa Valley, killing 100 Palestinian refugees. (172)

November 27, 1984: Israeli planes attacked Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, killing 7 people, and wounding 9. (173)

January 9, 1985: Israeli planes attacked Palestinian refugees in the Biqa Valley. (174)

February 10, 1985: Israeli jets attacked Palestinian refugee camps in the Biqa Valley of Lebanon, wounding 2 persons. (175)

February 11, 1985: Israeli planes attacked Palestinian refugee camps in southeast Lebanon. Nine schoolgirls were wounded. (176)

April 17, 1985: Israeli planes attacked Palestinian refugee camps in the Biqa Valley. (177)

July 10, 1985: Israeli planes attacked two Palestinian refugee camps near Tripoli, Lebanon, killing 24 and wounding 90. (178)

July 28, 1985: Israeli warplanes attacked Palestinian camps in the Biqa Valley, killing several people. (179)

August 2, 1985: Israeli planes attacked in the Biqa Valley causing at least 35 casualties. (180)

August 8, 1985: Israel planes attacked in the Biqa Valley, killing 4 persons. (181)

September 26, 1985: Israeli planes attacked a Palestinian refugee camp west of Balbak, Lebanon. (182)

October 1, 1985: Israeli F-15 jets attacked the PLO headquarters in Tunis, Tunisia, killing 73 people and wounding 100 more, including Tunisians as well as Palestinians. (183)

October 27, 1985: Israeli jets attacked Palestinian camps in Lebanon's Biqa Valley, killing four people in the raid. (184)

January 29, 1986: Israeli warplanes bomb Palestinian camps in South Lebanon, killing 5 and wounding 6. (185)

March 27, 1986: The Israeli Air Force bombs Palestinian camp at Mieh Mieh outside of Sidon, Lebanon, killing 15 and wounding 25. (186)

April 7, 1986: Israeli planes attack Palestinians around Sidon, Lebanon, killing 2 and wounding 2O. (187)

July 10, 1986: Israeli helicopter gunships strafe Ain al-Hilwah refugee camp near Sidon, Lebanon, killing 1 and wounding 8. (188)

September 9, 1986: Israeli planes bomb near Sidon, Lebanon, killing at least 3 Palestinians. (189)

September 10, 1986: Israeli airplanes bomb civilian industrial district near Sidon, killing 3 and wounding 17. Twenty workshops and factories were ruined. (190)

September 12, 1986: Israeli planes bomb Palestinians near Sidon, Lebanon, wounding 4. (191)

September 23, 1986: Israeli planes bomb four Druze villages southeast of Beirut, wounding 5, including two women. (192)

September 25, 1986: Israeli jets bomb near Mieh Mieh Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon, killing 1 and wounding 3 civilians. (193)

October 6, 1986: Eight Israeli jets bomb Palestinians north of Tripoli, Lebanon, wounding 7 Palestinians and 2 Lebanese. (194)

October 16, 1986: Israeli planes bomb Mieh Mieh Palestinian refugee camp, killing 4 and wounding 12. (195)

November 16, 1986: Israeli bombers attack Palestinians near Sidon, Lebanon, killing 2 and wounding 5. (196)

November 17, 1986: Israeli helicopters strafe Ain al-Hilwah Palestinian refugee camp, wounding 4. (197)

November 27, 1986: Israeli jets bomb Palestinians near Sidon, Lebanon, killing 11 and wounding 2O. (198)

December 11, 1986: Israeli planes bomb Nahr al-Barid refugee camp in North Lebanon. (199)

February 12, 1987: Israeli air force jets strike near Mieh Mieh refugee camp, killing 3 and wounding 12. (200)

March 24, 1987: Israeli jets bomb Palestinians southeast of Sidon, Lebanon, killing. (201)

April 19, 1987: Israeli helicopters strike Rashidiyyah refugee camp in South Lebanon. (202)

April 22, 1987: Israeli helicopters strafe Palestinians near Sidon, wounding 13. (203)

May 8, 1987: Israeli planes bomb Ain al-Hilwah refugee camp, killing 1 1 and wounding 40. (204)

May 18, 1987: Israeli planes bomb Mieh Mieh refugee camp, killing 1 and wounding 3. (205)

July 3, 1987: Israeli jets attack Lebanese villa in Biqa Valley, wounding 13 Lebanese. (206)

September 5, 1987: Israeli planes bomb Ain al-Hilwah Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon, killing 41 and wounding 40. (207)

December 1, 1987: Israeli planes bomb near Sidon, Lebanon, wounding 3. (208)

January 2, 1988: Israeli helicopters and jets attack Palestinians in South Lebanon, at least 19 are killed and 14 wounded, mostly at Ain al-Hilwah refugee camp.209 March 17, 1988: Israeli fighter planes attack near Beirut, killing 1 Palestinian. (209)

March 23, 1988: Israeli fighter planes fire rockets at villages of Abra, Bramiyyah, Kirkha and Sharhabil in South Lebanon, killing or wounding 15. (210)

October 25, 1988: Israeli warplanes struck at the Lebanese village of Beit Lahia in the Bekaa valley, wounding one person, destroying one house and damaging several others. (212)

October 26, 1988: Israeli planes bombed the village of Mieh Mieh near Sidon in South Lebanon, killing at least 15 persons and wounding 40, and leveling at least 20 houses. (213)

November 1, 1988: A squadron of Israeli jets bombed the outskirts of Beirut and Palestinian refugee camps in South Lebanon, killing 4 people and wounding 22. (214)

November 6, 1988: Israeli helicopters pounded the Bkousta area east of Sidon in South Lebanon, killing a child and wounding one man during the 10-minute raid. (215)

March 20, 1989: Israeli planes attacked near Bar Elias, 35 miles east of Beirut, killing 20 persons, wounding dozens more, and leveling three buildings. (216)

NOTES TO CHAPTER THIRTY ONE

1. "Secret" Memorandum for the Record by JCS Chairman Earle G. Wheeler, dated December 16, 1967, in National Security File Israel, volume 8, Box 141, Lyndon Baines Johnson Library. Cited in Stephen Green, Living by the Sword: America and Israel in the Middle East (Brattleboro, Vermont: Amana Books, 19881, p. 50.

2. Enclosure 1 to "Secret/Exdis" memorandum entitled "Visit of Levi Eshkol, Prime Minister of Israel," January 7-8, 1968, Israeli Arms Request, document 23, Saunders Memos, National Security File, Lyndon Baines Johnson Library. cited in Green, Living by the Sword, p. 12.

3. "Secret-Sensitive" Memorandum for the Record by Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Earle G. Wheeler, dated 24 January, 1968, National Security File, Country File Israel, volume 8, Box 141, Lyndon Baines Johnson Library. cited in Green, p. 11,

4. Green, p. 11.

5. lbid., p. 13.

6. Ze'ev Schiff, A History of the Israeli Army 1970-1974 (San Francisco: Straight Arrow Books, 1974), p. 198.

7. Green. p. 50.

8. lbid., p. 51.

9. The Middle East Journal, 1970, volume 24, No. 3, p. 355.

10. The Middle East Journal, 1948, volume 2, No. 4, p. 329.

11. Edgar O'BaIlance, The Electronic War in the Middle East (London: Archon Books, 1974). pp. 103-114.

12. The Middle East Journal, 1968, volume 22, No. 2, p. 173.

13. Edward W. Said and Christopher Hitchens, eds., Blaming the Victims (New York: Verso, 19881, p. 132.

14. Stewart Steven, The Spymasters of Israel (New York: Macmillan, 1980). p. 190.

15. lbid., p. 190.

16. Livia Rokach, Israel's Sacred Terrorism, 3rd edition (Belmont. Mass: Association of Arab American University Graduates Press, 19861, p. 13.

17. lbid., p. 13.

18. lbid.. pp. 13-14.

19. Noam Chomsky, The Fateful Triangle (Boston, Mass: South End Press, 1983), p. 189.

20. New York Times, December 3, 1975, p. 67.

21. Donald Neff, Warriors Against Israel (Brattleboro, Vermont: Amana Books, 1988), p. 78.

22. Steven, p. 92, The Spymasters of Israel.

23. Ariel Merari, editor, On Combatting Terrorism (Frederick, Md: University Press, 1985), p. xii.

24. lbid., pp. x-xii.

25. Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi, The Israeli Connection: Who Israel Arms and Why (New York: Pantheon Books, 1987), pp. 128-129. 26. lbid., p. 122.

27. Catalog of the Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, Tel Aviv University, International Board of Trustees.

28. The Middle East Journal, 1948, volume 2, No. 4.

29. The Middle East Journal, 195 1. volume 5, No. 3.

30. lbid.

31. The Middle East Journal, 1954, volume 8, No. 1.

32. The Middle East Journal, 1957, volume 2, No. 1.

33. The Middle East Journal, 1962, volume 16, No. 3.

34. The Middle East Journal, 1963, volume 17, No. 3.

35. The Middle East Journal, 1966. volume 20, No. 4.

36. The Middle East Journal, 1967, volume 21, No. 4.

37. The Middle East Journal, 1968, volume 22, No. 2.

38. The Middle East Journal, 1968, volume 22, No. 3.

39. The Middle East Journal, 1968. volume 22, No. 4.

40. The Middle East Journal, 1969, volume 23, No. 2.

41. lbid.

42. lbid.

43. The Middle East Journal, 1969, volume 23, No. 3.

44. lbid.

45. lbid.

46. lbid.

47. lbid.

48. lbid.

49. The Middle East Journal, 1969, volume 23, No. 3.

50. lbid.

51. lbid.

52. lbid.

53. lbid.

54. lbid.

55. lbid.

56. lbid.

57. lbid.

58. lbid.

59. The Middle East Journal, 1970, volume 24, No. 1.

60. lbid.

61. lbid.

62. lbid.

63. lbid.

64. lbid.

65. lbid.

66. lbid.

67. lbid.

68. lbid.

69. lbid.

70. lbid.

71. The Middle East Journal, 1970, volume 24, No. 2.

72. lbid.

73. lbid.

74. lbid.

75. lbid.

76. lbid.

77. lbid.

78. lbid.

79. lbid.

80. lbid.

81. lbid.

82. The Middle East Journal, 1970, volume 24, No. 3.

83. lbid.

84. lbid.

85. lbid.

86. lbid.

87. lbid.

88. lbid.

89. lbid.

90. lbid.

91. The Middle East Journal, 197 1, volume 25, No. 1.

92. The Middle East Journal, 1972, volume 26, No. 3.

93. The Middle East Journal, 1972, volume 26, No. 4.

94. The Middle East Journal, 1973. volume 27. No. 1.

95. lbid.

96. lbid.

97. The Middle East Journal, 1973, volume 27, No. 2.

98. The Middle East Journal, 1974, volume 28, No. 1.

99. lbid.

100. The Middle East Journal., 1974, volume 28, No. 3.

101. lbid.

102. lbid.

103. The Middle East Journal, 1974, volume 28, No. 4.

104. lbid.

105. lbid.

106. lbid.

107. lbid.

108. lbid.

109. lbid.

110. The Middle East Journal, 1975, volume 29, No. 1.

111. lbid.

112. lbid.

113. The Middle East Journal, 1975, volume 29, No. 2.

114. lbid.

115. The Middle East Journal, 1975, volume 29, no. 4.

1 16. lbid.

117. lbid.

118. The Middle East Journal, 1976, volume 30, No. 1.

119. lbid.

120. lbid.

121. lbid.

122. The Middle East Journal, 1976, volume 30, No. 2.

123. The Middle East Journal, 1978, volume 32, No. 3.

124. lbid.

125. The Middle East Journal. 1978, volume 33, No. 1.

126. lbid.

127. The Middle East Journal, 1979, volume 33, No. 2.

128. The Middle East Journal, 1979, volume 33, No. 3.

129. lbid.

130. lbid.

131. lbid.

132. The Middle East Journal, 1979, volume 33, No. 4.

133. lbid.

134. lbid.

135. lbid.

136. The Middle East Journal, 1980, volume 34, No. 1.

137. The Middle East Journal, 1981, volume 35, No. 2.

138. lbid.

139. The Middle East Journal, 198 1, volume 35, No. 4.

140. lbid.

141. lbid.

142. lbid.

143. lbid.

144. lbid.

145. lbid.

146. The Middle East Journal, 1982, volume 36, No. 4.

147. lbid.

148. lbid.

149. lbid.

150. lbid.

151.The Middle East Journal, 1983, volume 37, No. 1.

152. lbid.

153. lbid.

154. lbid.

155. lbid.

156. lbid.

157. lbid.

158. The Middle East Journal, 1984, volume 38, No. 2.

159. lbid.

160. lbid.

161. lbid.

162. The Middle East Journal, 1984, volume 38, No. 3.

163. lbid.

164. lbid.

165. lbid.

166. lbid.

167. lbid.

168. lbid.

169. The Middle East Journal, 1984, volume 38, No. 4.

170. lbid.

171. The Middle East Journal, 1985, volume 39, No. 1.

172. lbid.

173. The Middle East Journal, 1985, volume 39, No. 2.

174. lbid.

175. The Middle East Journal, 1985, volume 39, No. 3.

176. lbid.

177. The Middle East Journal, 1985, volume 39, No. 4.

178. lbid.

179. The Middle East Journal, 1986, volume 40, No. 1.

180. lbid.

181. lbid.

182. lbid.

l83. lbid.

184. The Middle East Journal, 1986, volume 40, No. 2.

185. Journal of Palestine Studies, No. 59, volume 15, No. 3, p. 236.

186. Journal of Palestine Studies, No. 60, volume 15, No. 4, p. 257.

187. lbid., p. 258.

188. Journal of Palestine Studies, No. 61, volume 16, No. 1, p. 255.

189. Journal of Palestine Studies, No. 62, volume 16, No. 2, p. 219.

190. lbid., p. 220.

191. lbid., p. 220.

192. lbid., p. 223.

193. lbid., p. 223.

194. lbid., p. 226.

195. lbid., p. 227.

196. Journal of Palestine Studies, No. 63, volume 16, No. 3, p. 240.

197. lbid., p. 240.

198. lbid., p. 243.

199. lbid., p. 246.

200. lbid., p. 260.

201. Journal of Palestine Studies, No. 64, volume 16, No. 4, p 224.

202. lbid., p. 232.

203. lbid., p. 233.

204. lbid., p. 236.

205. Journal of Palestine Studies, No. 65, volume 17, No. 1, p. 214.

206. lbid., p. 224.

207. Journal of Palestine Studies, No. 66, volume 17, No. 2, p. 222.

208. Journal of Palestine Studies, No. 67, volume 17, No. 3, p. 213.

209. lbid., p. 219.

210. Journal of Palestine Studies, No. 68, volume 17, No. 4, p. 222.

211. lbid., p. 224.

212. Washington Post, October 25, 1988.

213. lbid., October 27, 1988, p. A56.

214. New York Times, November 2, 1988.

215 Christian Science Monitor, November 7, 1988, p. 2.

216. New York Times, March 21, 1989, p. A6.






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